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Calotropis gigantea - Arka plant

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Sadapushpa, Mandara, Calotropis flower

Calotropis procera is a large shrub growing to 4m tall. It has clusters of waxy flowers that are either white or lavender in color. This plant is belongs to Aslepiacea family.


Rheumatism, Painful joints, Skin blemishes, Leucoderma, Vitiligo, Piles, Pain in ears[1]

Parts Used

Roots, Bark, Flowers, Leaves, Latex.

Chemical Composition

The milky sap contains a complex mix of chemicals, some of which are steroidal heart poisons known as "cardiac aglycones".[2]

Common names

Language Common name
Kannada Ekka, Ekkadagida, Ekkegida
Hindi Aak, Akavana, Madar
Malayalam Erikku
Tamil Erukku, Vellerukku
Telugu Jilledu
Marathi Rui
Gujarathi Aakado
Punjabi Ak
Kashmiri Vasa
Sanskrit Bhaanu, Ravi, Tapana, Arka
English Aakado



Reference: Dravya - Substance, Rasa - Taste, Guna - Qualities, Veerya - Potency, Vipaka - Post-digesion effect, Karma - Pharmacological activity, Prabhava - Therepeutics.



Tikta (Bitter), Katu (Pungent)


Laghu (Light), Sara, Snigdha


Ushna (Hot)


Katu (Pungent)


Vatahara, Kaphahara, Bhedana, Deepana, Kshamighna



Large shrub



Kind Shape Feature
Simple Opposite Elliptic-ovate to obovate, greyish-green in colour and have entire margins, relatively thick (5-30 cm long and 4-15 cm wide) with a cordate leaf base. Secondary veins 5-7 pairs



Type Size Color and composition Stamen More information
Borne in clusters 15-25 mm across White or Purplish Five Flowering occurs mostly during winter


Type Size Mass Appearance Seeds More information
Large 6-12 cm long and 3-7 cm wide These fruit have thick and spongy skins which split open at maturity Flattened seeds

Other features

List of Ayurvedic medicine in which the herb is used

Where to get the saplings

Mode of Propagation

Seeds, Cuttings, Layering.

How to plant/cultivate

Succeeds in the drier tropics. Most commonly found in areas of the tropics with a specific dry season, at elevations up to 1,000 metres.[5]

Commonly seen growing in areas

Tropical area, Indian subcontinent.

Photo Gallery


  1. Medicinal uses of Madar
  2. Chemical Composition
  3. Karnataka Aushadhiya Sasyagalu By Dr.Maagadi R Gurudeva, Page no:245
  4. Kappatagudda - A Repertoire of Medicinal Plants of Gadag pdf, Page no - 91
  5. Cultivation Details

External Links