Note: This is a project under development. The articles on this wiki are just being initiated and broadly incomplete. You can Help creating new pages.
Urethral bulking injections
A urethral bulking injection is a gynecological procedure and medical treatment used to treat involuntary leakage of urine: urinary incontinence in women. Injectional materials are used to control stress incontinence. Bulking agents are injected into the mucosa surrounding the bladder neck and proximal urethra. This reduces the diameter of the urethra and creates resistance to urine leakage. After the procedure, the pressure forcing the urine from the bladder through the urethra is resisted by the addition of the bulking agent in the tissue surrounding the proximal urethra. Most of the time this procedure prevents urinary stress incontinence in women.
Urethral bulking agents were first used in 1938 and incorporated morrhuate sodium as the injection material. Bovine collagen use began after 1989 and was considered the best example of treatment. All subsequent studies afterwards were compared with this agent. Its use was stopped in in 2011. Other bulking agents have been in use since the 1990s. The use of some was discontinued due to complications, the 'unpleasantness' of the procedure and the cost of the procedure.