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Nutrition physiology deals with different types of food and their effects on the metabolism. One topic of nutrition physiology is vitamin loss of frozen foods. Another topic is the calculation of required calories per day and what sort of food should best be avoided for a healthy lifestyle. This can be looked at as the driving viewpoint of nutritional research that guides health and food policy today. Yet another topic in this expanding field is the direct regulating effects of dietary vitamins and minerals on cell gene expression, or epigenetics. The direct and specific effect of nutrients from the diet on cell physiology is a growing field with many unknowns still existing. A current struggle in this research is the ability to evaluate the effects of varying metabolite concentrations on cell function, while keeping all else constant. The dietary nutrient ratios that produce optimal physiological output is a topic that could produce many solutions to problems such as cancer regulation, individualized sport performance, and much more.