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The Three Doshas and Five elements

  1. Vayu – Space and air
  2. Pitta – Fire and water
  3. Kapha – Water and earth

Although prevading the entire body, the Doshas are prominent in certain regions in the body.

Dosha Location

Vayu  : Below the navel, urinary bladder intestines, pelvic region, thighs, legs and bones

Pitta  : Between navel and chest, sweat, lymph, blood and stomach

Kapha  : Upper Part of the throat, head, neck, joints, upper portion of the stomach and fat tissues of the body

Attributes of Three Doshas

  • Vayu is mobile, dry, cold, light, minute, rough. These attributes can be felt when breathing air in a state of excitement. When Vayu is aggravated it leads to dryness, roughness, stiff body, pain similar to needle prick, joint pain, brittlebones shivering, numbness in limbs, constipation

and pain in the nails and teeth.

  • Reasons for aggravation are suppressing natural urges like excretion, urination and sneezing, eating before digestion of previous meals, sleeping late, talking loudly, exerting more, bumpy rides in vehicles, eating too much – dry pungent bitter things, over eating dry fruits, worrying and feeling tense always. Over indulgence in sexual activity, fasting, over eating cold food, being afraid.


consumption of ghee, oily food, bathing with warm water, formation and oil massage would help the Vayu to pacify. Love and reassurance would reduce fear.

Symptoms of Low Vayu

  1. Slowing down of various physiological functions, unhappiness, reduction in perceptive powers, weariness, disinterest in speech, nausea, indigestion etc.
  2. Light, cold, butter, pungent and spicy food items increase Vayu.


  • This is hot, slightly greasy, pungent, liquid and smells.
  • Effects on physiology – When Pitta Dosha dominates in the body, it is called pitta constitution. Such people have excessive hunger and thirst, greying of hair and baldness, sharpness of character, strong digestive power, excessive sweating, urine and excreta, etc.

Symptoms of Aggravated Pitta

Fatigue, lack of strength and sleep, excessive sweating, burning sensation, darkening of complexion, anger, dizziness, fainting, yellowing of skin, stool, urine,nails and eyes, bitter taste in the mouth are unique symptoms of aggravated Pitta.


  1. Consumption of large quantities of bitter, sour, hot, spicy, fermented food and drinks increases Pitta. Consuming dry vegetables, alkaline foods, exposure to too much heat and sun,indigestion, anger, fear and depression affect Pitta Dosha.
  2. Food items like sesame oil, mustard, green vegetables, yogurt, butter milk, vinegar, intoxicating drinks, cream of boiled milk, meat, mutton, aggravate pitta.


  • Causes of aggravation of Pitta are to be discontinued. Intake of Ghee is very useful remedy.
  • When Pitta falls down reduction in digestive powers, body temperature, radiance and sheen on skin and feeling of coldness would occur. Therefore pitta increasing food and herbal medicines are to be used. Herbal preparations which increase pitta should be used.


  1. Kapha is oily, sweet, heavy, soft, firm, cold, moist and white.
  2. People with dominant Kapha Dosha have Kapha body type.
  3. People with Kapha constitution have abundance of strength, material wealth, knowledge and peace. They also have a long life span.

Symptoms of vitiated Kapha

  1. Feeling languid, increased sleep, sweet taste in mouth , feeling cold,itchy, heavy, swelling, constipation, increased secretion of eyes,nose,muscles,retarded response,cough,depression and feeling of lifelessness.


  1. Over eating sweet, sour, heavy oily,moist foods,food containing meat,fish,sesame,sugurcane and milk,eating before digestion of previous meals, lack of exercise,sleeping during the day, lack of physical activity,all these increases kapha dosha.
  2. Other foods that increase kapha are curds,milk, horse bean, rice pudding,sea food,fat,water chestnut,coconut,green ground and pumpkin and other vegetables that grow on creepers.


  • Precautions are to be taken about the above food items to restore kapha balance.
  • Eating honey woulf help,using pungent and hot herbal preparations would help to balance kapha.
  • Exercising,running,sit ups,swimming and being active would help to balance kapha.
  • Low kapha displays symptoms of dryness, burning sensation, looseness of joints and lack of sleep. Induced vomitting is good as per Ayurveda. Pungent and host substances should be used for induced vomitting.


The above mentioned information is added from the book called "MUDRAS & HEALTH PERSPECTIVES" by "SUMAN.K.CHIPLUNKAR".