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Holarrhena pubescens - Indrayavah, Kutajah

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Holarrhena pubescens is a deciduous shrub or tree with fragrant white flowers and abundant white latex in all its parts. It grows up to 10 metres tall. An important medicinal plant in the tropics, it is gathered from the wild for its wide range of medicinal and other uses. The plant is sometimes cultivated for medicinal purposes, the root bark is sold in local markets.


Scabies, Ringworm, Itching, Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Bleeding piles, Colic, Urinary tract infection, Vomiting, Kidney stone[1].


Indrayavah sabdariffa can be used in Food. Leaves are cooked as vegetable, fruits eaten raw.[2]

Parts Used

Bark, Seeds, Leaf[1].

Chemical Composition

Chemical analysis of H. pubescens extracts revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds, such as Conessine, Isoconnessine, Conessimine, Conimine, Conessidine, Conkurchicine, Holarrhimine, Conarrhimine, Mokluangin A-D and Antidysentericine[3]

Common names

Language Common name
Kannada Koodsaloo, Kodumuruka, Girimallige, Haale, Halagatti
Hindi Karva indrajau, Kurchi, Kuda
Malayalam Kutakappaala
Tamil Kirimllikai
Telugu Girimallika
Marathi NA
Gujarathi NA
Punjabi NA
Kashmiri NA
Sanskrit Indrayava, Kutaja, Girije, Girimallika
English Indrajao, Easter tre, Ivari tree



Reference: Dravya - Substance, Rasa - Taste, Guna - Qualities, Veerya - Potency, Vipaka - Post-digesion effect, Karma - Pharmacological activity, Prabhava - Therepeutics.



Tikta (Bitter), Kashaya (Astringent)


Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry)


Sheeta (cold)


Katu (Pungent)


Pitta, Kapha


Nutritional components

Holarrhena pubescens Contains the Following nutritional components like - Vitamin-C; Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Zinc[2]


Deciduous shrub



Kind Shape Feature
Simple Ovate Oppositely arranges, ovate, obtusely acuminate leaves are 10-20 cm long



Type Size Color and composition Stamen More information
Unisexual 5-15 cm White 5-20 Flowers have five white petals 2-3 cm long which turn creamish yellow as they age. Flowering from March to May and July to November


Type Size Mass Appearance Seeds More information
Simple 7–10 mm Clearly grooved lengthwise, Lowest hooked hairs aligned towards crown Many Fruiting from March to May and July to November

Other features

List of Ayurvedic medicine in which the herb is used

Atrisaar, Amritaarishta, Abhayaarishta, Amibika, Entostal, Ovoutoline, Kantakaaryava Leha, Krimakutaar Ras, Kutajaarishta, Chavanapraash Lehyam, Chopachinaadi Churna, Devavati, Diarex, Dashamulaarishta, Mahaayogaraaja Guggulu, Vidangaarishta, Vidangaasava, Sandarshana Vati, Mahavalyati Lehya, Paramgi Rasaayanam[5]

Where to get the saplings

Mode of Propagation

Seeds, Cuttings.

How to plant/cultivate

Holarrhena pubescens can be propagated by seed, either by direct sowing or by raising seedlings in a nursery[6]. It is available through February to September[2].

Commonly seen growing in areas

Wild in mountains, Meadows, Borders of forests and fields.

Photo Gallery


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ”Karnataka Medicinal Plants Volume-3” by Dr.M. R. Gurudeva, Page No.343, Published by Divyachandra Prakashana, #6/7, Kaalika Soudha, Balepete cross, Bengaluru
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Forest food for Northern region of Western Ghats" by Dr. Mandar N. Datar and Dr. Anuradha S. Upadhye, Page No.92, Published by Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science (MACS) Agharkar Research Institute, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Road, Pune
  3. Journal Article from Bio-Molecules - Metabolic Diversity and Therapeutic Potential of Holarrhena pubescens: An Important Ethnomedicinal Plant
  4. Plant description
  5. Ayurvedic preparations
  6. Cultivation Details

External Links