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Calophyllum inophyllum - Punnaga

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Punnaga, Calophyllum inophyllum

Punnagais a moderate sized tree with smooth and shining oppositely arranged leaves. The fruits are used to make oil. Calophyllum inophyllum usually occurs naturally all along the coast, on beaches and further inland as well.

Uses

Gastritis, Nasal bleeding, Psychiatric disorders, Diarrhea, Ulcer, Dysentery, Urinary tract infection [1]

Parts Used

Seed, Bark, Oil

Chemical Composition

The root bark and heartwood contain xanthones. The xanthones exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in rats against carrageenan-induce oedema; also CNS depressant activity. Jacareubin and 6-deoxy derivatives exhibited antiulcer activity in rats. Calophyllolide, a complex 5-Phcoumarin isolated from nuts, showed antiarrhythmic (as effective as quinidine), bradycardiac coronary dilator, and anticoagulant, also anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity. [2]

Common names

Language Common name
Kannada honne kaayi mara, naameru, marasurahonne
Hindi sultanachampa, surpunka, undi
Malayalam ceruppuna, ponnakum, pouna, punna
Tamil cayantakam, punnagam, punnai-maram
Telugu naameru, nameru, ponna, ponna chettu
Marathi NA
Gujarathi NA
Punjabi NA
Kashmiri NA
Sanskrit namaeruak, panchakaeshera, punnaga
English Alexanrian laurel

[3]

Properties

Reference: Dravya - Substance, Rasa - Taste, Guna - Qualities, Veerya - Potency, Vipaka - Post-digesion effect, Karma - Pharmacological activity, Prabhava - Therepeutics.

Dravya

Rasa

Madhura (Sweet), Kashaya (Astringent)

Guna

Laghu (Light), Rooksha (Dry)

Veerya

Sheeta (cold)

Vipaka

Madhura (Sweet)

Karma

Pitta, Kapha

Prabhava

Habit

Tree

Identification

Leaf

Kind Shape Feature
Simple Opposite Leaves broadly elliptic-oblong or obovate, cuneate to rounded at base, slightly recurved and margined, rounded, acute, slightly emarginate, retuse or sub-acute at apex, 6-15 x 3-10.5 cm, coriaceous, glabrous; midnerve channelled above; raised beneath; lateral nerves 4-20 pairs; petioles flat, 1-1.7 cm long, glabrous.

[4]

Flower

Type Size Color and composition Stamen More information
Bisexual axillary racemes white Flowers polygamous, 2-2.5 cm across, white, fragrant; bracts ovate, 3-4 mm long, caducous; pedicels 1-3 cm long, glabrous. Sepals 4, reflexed; outer pair ovate to suborbicular, concave, 5.5-6.5 x 4.5-6.5 mm, nerved; the inner subelliptic, 9-15 x 7.5-9.5 mm, petaloid, nerved. Petals usually 4, rarely 3 or 5, obovate to elliptic or oblong, reflexed, 9-12 x 5-9 mm, rarely glabrous, nerved. Stamens (175-) 210-360(-440); filaments 3.5-5.5 mm long, connate for 1.5 mm into 4-6 bundles, cream coloured; anthers rounded or retuse at apex, 0.7-2 mm long. Ovary globose-depressed, 2.5-3 x 2.8-3 mm, stipitate; style 4.5-6.5 mm long; stigmas peltate, 3-5 radiate, 0.7-2 mm across.

Fruit

Type Size Mass Appearance Seeds More information
Drupe 2.5-5 x 2.5-4 cm smooth; stone subglobose, ca 2 cm across. {{{6}}}

Other features

List of Ayurvedic medicine in which the herb is used

Where to get the saplings

Mode of Propagation

Seeds, Cuttings.

How to plant/cultivate

Season to grow

Soil type

Propagation

Commonly seen growing in areas

Tropical area, Coastal area.

Photo Gallery

References

External Links